General

Selectors Reference

Support
Selector Example Example description
.class .intro Selects all elements with class="intro"
#id #firstname Selects the element with id="firstname"
* * Selects all elements
element p Selects all <p> elements
element,element div, p Selects all <div> elements and all <p> elements
Combinators
element element div p Selects all <p> elements inside <div> elements
element>element div > p Selects all <p> elements where the parent is a <div> element
element+element div + p Selects all <p> elements that are placed immediately after <div> elements
element1~element2 p ~ ul Selects every <ul> element that are preceded by a <p> element
Attribute (useful for styling forms without class or ID)
[attribute] [target] Selects all elements with a target attribute
[attribute=value] [target=_blank] Selects all elements with target="_blank"
[attribute~=value] [title~=flower] Selects all elements with a title attribute containing the word "flower", ignores "my-flower" or "flowers"
[attribute|=value] [lang|=en] Selects all elements with a lang attribute value starting with "en"
[attribute^=value] a[href^="https"] Selects every <a> element whose href attribute value begins with "https"
[attribute$=value] a[href$=".pdf"] Selects every <a> element whose href attribute value ends with ".pdf"
[attribute*=value] a[href*="w3schools"] Selects every <a> element whose href attribute value contains the substring "w3schools"
Pseudo-classes
:checked input:checked Selects every checked <input> element. Checked <input> element (only for radio buttons and checkboxes) and <option> element
:disabled input:disabled Selects every disabled <input> element
:optional input:optional Selects <input> elements with no "required" attribute
:required input:required Selects <input> elements with a "required" attribute specified
:enabled input:enabled Selects every enabled <input> element
:valid input:valid Selects all <input> elements with a valid value
:invalid input:invalid Selects all <input> elements with an invalid value
:in-range input:in-range Selects <input> elements with a value within a specified range
:out-of-range input:out-of-range Selects <input> elements with a value outside a specified range
:focus input:focus Selects the <input> element that has focus
:read-only input:read-only Selects <input> elements with a "readonly" attribute specified
:read-write input:read-write Selects <input> elements with no "readonly" attribute
:not(selector) :not(p) Selects every element that is not a <p> element
:empty p:empty Selects every <p> element that has no children (including text nodes)
:first-child p:first-child | li:first-child | :first-child Selects every <p> elements that is the first child of its parent
:first-of-type p:first-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the first <p> element of its parent. the same as :nth-of-type(1)
:lang(language) p:lang(it) Selects every <p> element with a lang attribute value starting with "it"
:last-child p:last-child Selects every <p> elements that is the last child of its parent
:last-of-type p:last-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the last <p> element of its parent
:nth-child(n) p:nth-child(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second child of its parent
:nth-last-child(n) p:nth-last-child(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second child of its parent, counting from the last child
:nth-last-of-type(n) p:nth-last-of-type(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second <p> element of its parent, counting from the last child
:nth-of-type(n) p:nth-of-type(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second <p> element of its parent
:only-of-type p:only-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the only <p> element of its parent
:only-child p:only-child Selects every <p> element that is the only child of its parent
:target #news:target Selects the current active #news element (clicked on a URL containing that anchor name)
:root root Selects the document's root (html) element
Links state (in correct order)
:link a:link Selects all unvisited links
:visited a:visited Selects all visited links
:hover a:hover Selects links on mouse over
:active a:active Selects the active link
Pseudo-elements
::after p::after Insert content after every <p> element
::before p::before Insert content before every <p> element
::first-letter p::first-letter Selects the first letter of every <p> element
::first-line p::first-line Selects the first line of a content of every <p> element
::selection p::selection Selects the portion of an element that is selected by a user , changes user selection colors

Box Model

Inserting/Priority

Specificity

  1. The universal selector (*) has low specificity, while ID selectors are highly specific!
  2. four categories which define the specificity level of a selector:
    1. Inline styles
    2. IDs
    3. Classes, attributes and pseudo-classes
    4. Elements and pseudo-elements
  3. Memorize how to calculate specificity! Start at 0, add 1000 for style attribute, add 100 for each ID, add 10 for each attribute, class or pseudo-class, add 1 for each element name or pseudo-element.
  4. Specificity Rules
    1. Equal specificity: the latest rule counts
    2. ID selectors have a higher specificity than attribute selectors
    3. Contextual selectors are more specific than a single element selector - The embedded style sheet is closer to the element to be styled
    4. A class selector beats any number of element selectors - a class selector such as .intro beats h1, p, div, etc
    5. The universal selector and inherited values have a specificity of 0 - *, body * and similar have a zero specificity. Inherited values also have a specificity of 0.

    /*
      list uses counter-increment and counter-reset to set ordering count
    */
    ol.wcounter {
      counter-reset: section;
      list-style-type: none;
    }
    ol.wcounter li::before {
      counter-increment: section;
      content: counters(section,".") " ";
    }
  

Units

Unit Description
Absolute Lengths
cm centimeters
mm millimeters
in inches (1in = 96px = 2.54cm)
px * pixels (1px = 1/96th of 1in)
pt points (1pt = 1/72 of 1in)
pc picas (1pc = 12 pt)
Relative Lengths
em Relative to the font-size of the element (2em means 2 times the size of the current font). Recommended by the W3C. 1em is equal to the current font size. The default text size in browsers is 16px. So, the default size of 1em is 16px.The size can be calculated from pixels to em using this formula: pixels/16=em. Set body{font-size:100%;} to fit all browsers
ex Relative to the x-height of the current font (rarely used)
ch Relative to width of the "0" (zero)
rem Relative to font-size of the root element
vw Relative to 1% of the width of the viewport, vw (1vw = 1% of viewport width), if the viewport is 50cm wide, 1vw is 0.5cm
vh Relative to 1% of the height of the viewport*
vmin/vm(IE) Relative to 1% of viewport's* smaller dimension
vmax/not in IE Relative to 1% of viewport's* larger dimension
% Relative to the parent element

Centering

This div element has a width of 500px, and margin set to auto.
The problem with the div above occurs when the browser window is smaller than the width of the element. The browser then adds a horizontal scrollbar to the page.
Using max-width instead, in this situation, will improve the browser's handling of small windows. This is important when making a site usable on small devices
This div element has a max-width of 500px, and margin set to auto

    <div style="width:500px;margin:auto;border:3px solid #73AD21;">
      This div element has a width of 500px, and margin set to auto.
    </div>
    The problem with the div above occurs when the browser window is smaller than the width of the element.
     The browser then adds a horizontal scrollbar to the page.
    Using max-width instead, in this situation, will improve the browser's handling of small windows.
    This is important when making a site usable on small devices
    <div style="max-width:500px;margin:auto;border:3px solid #73AD21;">
      This div element has a max-width of 500px, and margin set to auto
    </div>
  

    <img
      src="../images/img_orange_flowers.jpg"
      style="display:block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;width:150px;"
    />
  
padding and text-align
Aligned text

line-height and text-align

I am vertically and horizontally centered text in a paragraph tag with multiple line, still looking good, and ready to add any more text inside this great div element in which am i )


transform and position:absolute

I am vertically and horizontally centered text in a paragraph tag with multiple line, still looking good, and ready to add any more text inside this great div element in which am i )


    padding and text-align
    <div style="padding:30px 0;border:3px solid green;text-align:center;">
      Aligned text
    </div>

    line-height and text-align
    <div style="line-height:150px;height:150px;border:3px solid green;text-align:center;">
      <p style="line-height:1.5;display:inline-block;vertical-align:middle;">
        I am vertically and horizontally centered text in a paragraph tag with multiple line,
        still looking good, and ready to add any more text inside this great div element in which am i )
      </p>
    </div>

    transform and position:absolute
    <div style="height:200px;position:relative;border:3px solid green;">
      <p
        style="margin:0;position:absolute;top:50%;left:50%;-ms-transform:translate(-50%,-50%);transform:translate(-50%,-50%);"
      >
        I am vertically and horizontally centered text in a paragraph tag with multiple line,
        still looking good, and ready to add any more text inside this great div element in which am i )
      </p>
    </div>
  

Float, Clear and clearfix-hack

Chania

  • The Flight
  • The City
  • The Island
  • The Food

The City

Chania is the capital of the Chania region on the island of Crete. The city can be divided in two parts, the old tothe capital of the Chania region on the island of Crete. The city can be divided in two parts, the old tothe capital of the Chania region on the island of Crete. The city can be divided in two parts, the old town and the modern city.

You will learn more about web layout and responsive web pages in a lateout web layout and responsive web pages in a lateout web layout and responsive web pages in a lateout web layout and responsive web pages in a lateout web layout and responsive web pages in a lateout web layout and responsive web pages in a later chapter.

You will learn more about web layout and responsive wout web layout and responsive web pages in a lateeb pages in a later chapter.

Footer Text


    <div style="background-color:grey;color:white;padding:15px;">
      <p>Chania</p>
    </div>
    <div class="clearfix">
      <div style="float:left; padding:15px; width:25%;">
        <ul style="list-style-type:none;margin:0;padding:0;">
          <li>The Flight</li>
          <li>The City</li>
          <li>The Island</li>
          <li>The Food</li>
        </ul>
      </div>
      <div style="float:left; padding:15px; width:75%;">
        <h1>The City</h1>
        <p>
          <span
            style="float:left;width:0.7em;font-size:400%;font-family:algerian,courier;line-height:80%;"
          >C</span>hania
          is the capital of ...
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    <div style="background-color:grey;color:white;padding:15px;">
      <p>Footer Text</p>
    </div>
  

adding clearfix hack to the containing element, and image will push borders to fit:

Pineapple Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectsectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus imperdiet, nulla et detur adipiscing elit. Phasellus imperdiet, nulla et dictum interdum ...

    <div
      class="clearfix"
      style="border:3px solid #4CAF50;padding:5px;"
    >
      <img
        style="float:right;width:170px;height:170px"
        src="../images/img_orange_flowers.jpg" alt="Pineapple"
      />
        Lorem ipsum...
    </div>
  

    * {
      box-sizing: border-box;
    }
    .clearfix::after {
      content: "";
      clear: both;
      display: table;
    }
  

Gradients

linear-gradient





    <div
      style="background:linear-gradient(red,orange,yellow,green,blue,indigo,violet);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:linear-gradient(to right,red,orange,yellow,green,blue,indigo,violet);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:linear-gradient(to bottom right,red,orange,yellow,green,blue,indigo,violet);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:linear-gradient(15deg,red,orange,yellow,green,blue,indigo,violet);"
    ></div>
  

with transparency


    <div style="background:linear-gradient(to right,rgba(255,0,0,0),rgba(255,0,0,1));"></div>
  

repeating-linear-gradient


    <div style="background:repeating-linear-gradient(red 10%,yellow 20%,green 30%);"></div>
  

radial-gradient






    <div
      style="background:radial-gradient(red,orange,yellow,green,blue,indigo,violet);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:radial-gradient(red 5%,yellow 15%,green 60%);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:radial-gradient(circle,red 5%,yellow 15%,green 60%);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:radial-gradient(farthest-side at 60% 55%,red 5%,yellow 15%,green 60%);"
    ></div>
    <div
      style="background:radial-gradient(farthest-corner at 60% 55%,red 5%,yellow 15%,green 60%);"
    ></div>
  

repeating-radial-gradient


    <div style="background:repeating-radial-gradient(red, yellow 10%, green 15%);"></div>
  

Web Fonts


    @font-face {
      font-family: myFirstFont;
      src: url(sansation_light.woff);

      /* next, are optional */

      font-stretch: normal;
      /*
        condensed|ultra-condensed|extra-condensed
        semi-condensed|expanded|semi-expanded|extra-expanded|ultra-expanded
      */

      font-weight: normal
      /* bold|100,200,...,900 */

      font-style: normal
      /* italic,oblique */

      unicode-range: U+0-10FFFF (default)
      /* Defines the range of UNICODE characters the font supports */
    }

    @font-face {
      font-family: 'Graduate';
      font-style: normal;
      font-weight: 400;
      src: local('Graduate'),
        local('Graduate-Regular'),
        url(fonts/graduate.eot) format('embedded-opentype'),
        url(fonts/graduate.ttf) format('truetype'),
        url(fonts/graduate.woff) format('woff');
    }

    /*
    This way you can have many @font-face rules for the same font.
    Browsers will use this, whenever a piece of text with the font-family "myFirstFont"
    should render as bold.
    */
    @font-face {
      font-family: myFirstFont;
      src: url(sansation_bold.woff);
      font-weight: bold;
    }

    div {
      font-family: myFirstFont;
    }
  

Transforms

perspective:150px

1
6
4
3
5
2

      .cube {
        width: 3em;
        height: 3em;
        margin: 0.5em auto;
        transform-style: preserve-3d;
        transform: rotateX(-45deg) rotateY(30deg);
        font-size: 2em;
        color:white;
      }
      .side {
        position: absolute;
        width: 2em;
        height: 2em;
        background: rgba(0,100,0,0.5);
        border: 1px solid red;
        text-align: center;
        line-height: 2em;
      }
      .side.bvh {
        backface-visibility: hidden;
      }
      .front {transform: translateZ(1em);}
      .top {transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(1em);}
      .right {transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(1em);}
      .left {transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(1em);}
      .bottom {transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(1em);}
      .back {transform: rotateY(-180deg) translateZ(1em);}
    

      <div style="perspective:150px;">
        <div class="cube">
          <div class="side front">1</div>
          <div class="side back">6</div>
          <div class="side right">4</div>
          <div class="side left">3</div>
          <div class="side top">5</div>
          <div class="side bottom">2</div>
        </div>
      </div>
    

perspective:250px

1
6
4
3
5
2

      <div style="perspective:250px;">
        <div class="cube">
          <div class="side bvh front">1</div>
          <div class="side bvh back">6</div>
          <div class="side bvh right">4</div>
          <div class="side bvh left">3</div>
          <div class="side bvh top">5</div>
          <div class="side bvh bottom">2</div>
        </div>
      </div>
    

transition-timing-function:linear|ease|...

linear
ease
ease-in
ease-out
ease-in-out

      #t_divs div {
        width: 100px;
        height: 50px;
        background: red;
        color: white;
        font-weight: bold;
        -webkit-transition: width 1s; /* Safari */
        transition: width 1s;
      }
      #t_divs div:hover {
        width: 300px;
      }
    

      <div id="t_divs">
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:linear;-webkit-transition-timing-function:linear;"
        >linear</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:ease;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease;"
        >ease</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:ease-in;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease-in;"
        >ease-in</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:ease-out;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease-out;"
        >ease-out</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:ease-in-out;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease-in-out;"
        >ease-in-out</div>
      </div>
    

transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(...

linear
ease
ease-in
ease-out
ease-in-out

      <div id="t_divs">
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(0,0,1,1);"
        >linear</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(0.25,0.1,0.25,1);"
        >ease</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(0.42,0,1,1);"
        >ease-in</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(0,0,0.58,1);"
        >ease-out</div>
        <div
          style="transition-timing-function:cubic-bezier(0.42,0,0.58,1);"
        >ease-in-out</div>
      </div>
    

transition-property: width, height


      #t_prop_div {
        width: 100px;
        height: 100px;
        background: red;
        -webkit-transition-property: width, height; /* Safari */
        -webkit-transition-duration: 1s; /* Safari */
        transition-property: width, height;
        transition-duration: 1s;
      }
      #t_prop_div:hover {
        width: 300px;
        height: 300px;
      }
    

      <div id="t_prop_div"></div>
    

transition + transform


      #tt_prop_div {
        width: 100px;
        height: 100px;
        background: red;
        -webkit-transition: width 1s, height 1s, -webkit-transform 1s; /* Safari */
        transition: width 1s, height 1s, transform 1s;
      }
      #tt_prop_div:hover {
        width: 300px;
        height: 300px;
        -webkit-transform: rotate(180deg); /* Safari */
        transform: rotate(180deg);
      }
    

      <div id="tt_prop_div"></div>
    

input with transition on focus


      #t_input {
        padding:1em;
        width: 15em;
        border:0.2em solid gray;
        -webkit-transition: width .3s ease-in-out, border .3s;
        transition: width .3s ease-in-out, border .3s;
      }
      #t_input:focus {
        width: 30em;
        border:0.2em solid lightcoral;
      }
    

      <input id="t_input" type="text" name="t_input" value="click this for changes"/>
    

Animations

animation-timing-function

linear
ease
ease-in
ease-out
ease-in-out

    #a_div1,
    #a_div2,
    #a_div3,
    #a_div4,
    #a_div5 {
      width: 100px;
      height: 50px;
      background: red;
      color: white;
      font-weight: bold;
      position: relative;
      -webkit-animation: mymove 2s infinite; /* Safari 4.0 - 8.0 */
      animation: mymove 2s infinite;
      margin-bottom: 10px;
    }
    /* Safari 4.0 - 8.0 */
    #a_div1 {
      animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0,0,1,1);
      -webkit-animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0,0,1,1);
    }
    #a_div2 {
      animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.25,0.1,0.25,1);
      -webkit-animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.25,0.1,0.25,1);
    }
    #a_div3 {
      animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.42,0,1,1);
      -webkit-animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.42,0,1,1);
    }
    #a_div4 {
      animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0,0,0.58,1);
      -webkit-animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0,0,0.58,1);
    }
    #a_div5 {
      animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.42,0,0.58,1);
      -webkit-animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.42,0,0.58,1);
    }
    /* Safari 4.0 - 8.0 */
    @-webkit-keyframes mymove {
      from {left: 0px;}
      to {left: 300px;}
    }
    @keyframes mymove {
      from {left: 0px;}
      to {left: 300px;}
    }
  

    <div id="a_div1">linear</div>
    <div id="a_div2">ease</div>
    <div id="a_div3">ease-in</div>
    <div id="a_div4">ease-out</div>
    <div id="a_div5">ease-in-out</div>
  

@keyframes


    @keyframes example {
      0% {
        background-color:red;
        left:0px;
        top:0px;
        transform: rotate(45deg);
        box-shadow:10px 10px 10px gray;
      }
      17%  {
        background-color:orange;
        left:0px;
        top:100px;
        transform: rotate(-45deg);
        box-shadow:2px 2px 2px gray;
      }
      34%  {
        background-color:yellow;
        left:100px;
        top:100px;
        transform: rotate(45deg);
        box-shadow:10px 10px 10px gray;
      }
      51%  {
        background-color:green;
        left:100px;
        top:0px;
        transform: rotate(-45deg);
        box-shadow:2px 2px 2px gray;
      }
      68% {
        background-color:blue;
        left:0px;
        top:100px;
        transform: rotate(45deg);
        box-shadow:10px 10px 10px gray;
      }
      85% {
        background-color:lightblue;
        left:100px;
        top:100px;
        transform: rotate(-45deg);
        box-shadow:2px 2px 2px gray;
      }
      100% {
        background-color:violet;
        left:0px;
        top:0px;
        transform: rotate(45deg);
        box-shadow:10px 10px 10px gray;
      }
    }

    /* The element to apply the animation to */
    #kf {
      margin:150px;

      width: 100px;
      height: 100px;
      background-color: red;
      position: relative;
      border-top:5px dotted black;
      box-shadow:5px 5px 5px gray;
      animation-name: example;
      animation-duration: 5s;
      animation-timing-function: ease-in-out;
      /*animation-delay: 200ms;*/
      animation-iteration-count: infinite;
      /*animation-direction: alternate;*/
      animation-fill-mode:both;

      /*animation: example 3s ease-in-out ;*/

    }
  

    <div id="kf"></div>
  

filter


    .f_image {
      width:18%;
      position: relative;
      float: left;
      margin:1%;
      display: block;
    }
  

    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image" style="">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: blur(4px);filter: blur(4px);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: brightness(0.30);filter: brightness(0.30)">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: contrast(180%);filter: contrast(180%);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: grayscale(100%);filter: grayscale(100%);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: hue-rotate(180deg);filter: hue-rotate(180deg);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: invert(100%);filter: invert(100%);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: opacity(50%);filter: opacity(50%);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: saturate(7); filter: saturate(7);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="-webkit-filter: sepia(100%);filter: sepia(100%);">
    <img src="../images/workplace.jpg" class="f_image"
      style="filter: drop-shadow(8px 8px 10px burlywood);">
  

backdrop-filter


    .bf {
      background-image: url(../images/img_pink_flowers.jpg), linear-gradient(rgb(219, 166, 166), rgb(0, 0, 172));
      background-position: center center;
      background-repeat: no-repeat;
      background-size: cover;
    }
    .bf-box {
      background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.3);
      border-radius: 5px;
      text-align: center;
      line-height: 1;
      backdrop-filter: blur(8px);
      -webkit-backdrop-filter: blur(8px);
      padding: 3rem 3rem;
      margin-left: 25%;
      margin-top: 10%;
      width: 50%;
    }
  
backdrop-filter: blur(10px)

    backdrop-filter: none;
    /* URL to SVG filter */
    backdrop-filter: url(commonfilters.svg#filter);
    /* filter-function values */
    backdrop-filter: blur(2px);
    backdrop-filter: brightness(60%);
    backdrop-filter: contrast(40%);
    backdrop-filter: drop-shadow(4px 4px 10px blue);
    backdrop-filter: grayscale(30%);
    backdrop-filter: hue-rotate(120deg);
    backdrop-filter: invert(70%);
    backdrop-filter: opacity(20%);
    backdrop-filter: sepia(90%);
    backdrop-filter: saturate(80%);
    /* multiple filters */
    backdrop-filter: url(filters.svg#filter) blur(4px) saturate(150%);
    /* global values */
    backdrop-filter: inherit;
    backdrop-filter: initial;
    backdrop-filter: revert;
    backdrop-filter: unset;

    .brighten-saturate-blur {
      backdrop-filter: brightness(150%) saturate(150%) blur(1rem);
    }

    @supports (backdrop-filter: none) {
      .background {
        backdrop-filter: blur(10px);
      }
    }
    @supports not (backdrop-filter: none) {
      .background {
        background-image: blurred.png;
      }
    }
  

background-clip


    p.bc {
      border: .5rem dashed  grey;
      margin: 1rem 2rem;
      padding: .5rem 1rem;
      background: linear-gradient(60deg, red, orange, yellow, lightgreen);
      font-size: 2rem;
      font-weight: bold;
      text-decoration: underline;
    }

    .bc.border-box { background-clip: border-box; }
    .bc.padding-box { background-clip: padding-box; }
    .bc.content-box { background-clip: content-box; }
    .bc.text {
      background-clip: text;
      -webkit-background-clip: text;
      color: rgba(0,0,0,.2);
    }
  

background extends behind the border

background extends to the inside edge of the border

background extends only to the edge of the content box

background is clipped to the foreground text


    /* Keyword values */
    background-clip: border-box;
    background-clip: padding-box;
    background-clip: content-box;
    background-clip: text;

    /* Global values */
    background-clip: inherit;
    background-clip: initial;
    background-clip: revert;
    background-clip: unset;
  

object-fit

object-fit multiple images

Norway Paris

    .of_image {
      width:200px;
      height:300px;
      border:1px dotted black;
    }
  

    <!-- No object-fit -->
    <img src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit: fill (default) -->
    <img style="object-fit: fill" src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit: contain -->
    <img style="object-fit: contain" src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit: cover -->
    <img style="object-fit: cover" src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit: scale-down -->
    <img style="object-fit: scale-down" src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit: none -->
    <img style="object-fit: none" src="../images/wide.jpg" class="of_image">
    <!-- object-fit multiple images -->
    <div class="container" style="height:300px">
      <img
        src="../images/rock.jpg" alt="Norway"
        style="float:left;width:50%;height:100%;object-fit: cover;">
      <img
        src="../images/paris.jpg" alt="Paris"
        style="float:left;width:50%;height:100%;object-fit: cover;">
    </div>
  

aspect-ratio


    .container {
      width: 100%;
      aspect-ratio: 16 / 9;
    }

    img {
      width: 100%;
      aspect-ratio: 8 / 6;
    }

    .sponsor-grid {
      display: grid;
      grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, minmax(120px, 1fr));
    }
    .sponsor img {
      aspect-ratio: 1 / 1;
      width: 100%;
      object-fit: contain;
    }
  

    .container {
      position: relative;
      width: 100%;
      padding-top: 56.25%; /* 16:9 Aspect Ratio */
    }
    .media {
      position: absolute;
      top: 0;
    }
  

column-style properties - multiple columns of text, like in newspapers

Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Nam liber tempor cum soluta nobis eleifend option congue nihil imperdiet doming id quod mazim placerat facer possim assum.

    .newspaper {
      -webkit-columns: 3; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
      -moz-columns: 3; /* Firefox */
      columns: 250px 3;

      -webkit-column-gap: 40px; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
      -moz-column-gap: 40px; /* Firefox */
      column-gap: 40px;

      -webkit-column-rule: 1px solid gray; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
      -moz-column-rule: 1px solid gray; /* Firefox */
      column-rule: 1px solid gray;

      border: 1px dashed gray;
      padding:20px;
    }
    .newspaper h2 {
      -webkit-column-span: all; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
      column-span: all;
    }
  

    <div class="newspaper">
      <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet</h2>
      Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consec...
    </div>
  

Grid

1
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5
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7
8
9
10
11

    <div id="gc-1">
      <div class="grid-item" id="gc-1-item-1">1</div>
      <div class="grid-item">2</div>
      <div class="grid-item">3</div>
      <div class="grid-item" id="gc-1-item-4">4</div>
      <div class="grid-item" id="gc-1-item-5">5</div>
      <div class="grid-item">6</div>
      <div class="grid-item">7</div>
      <div class="grid-item">8</div>
      <div class="grid-item" id="gc-1-item-9">9</div>
      <div class="grid-item">10</div>
      <div class="grid-item">11</div>
    </div>
  

    #gc-1 {
      display: grid;

      grid-gap: 10px;
      /*grid-column-gap: 50px;*/
      /*grid-row-gap: 50px;*/

      grid-template-columns: 150px auto auto auto auto auto;
      grid-template-rows: auto 75px auto auto;

      /*justify-content: space-evenly;*/
      /*align-content: end;*/

      background-color: #2196F3;
      padding: 10px;
    }
    #gc-1 .grid-item {
      background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
      border: 1px solid rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
      padding: 10px;
      font-size: 1em;
      text-align: center;
    }
    #gc-1-item-1 {
      grid-row: 1 / span 4;
      /*grid-row-start: 1;*/
      /*grid-row-end: 4;*/
    }
    #gc-1-item-4 {
      grid-column: 4 / 7;
      /*grid-column-start: 4;*/
      /*grid-column-end: 7;*/
    }
    #gc-1-item-5 {
      grid-area: 2 / 2 / 5 / 4;
      /* start: row-line 2 - col-line 2 */
      /* end: row-line 4 - col-line 4 */
    }
    #gc-1-item-9 {
      grid-area: 3 / 4 / span 2 / span 2;
      /* start: row-line 3 - col-line 4 */
      /* end: span 2 rows - span 3 cols */
    }
  

refer to line numbers when placing a grid item in a grid container

named areas grid

1
2
3
4
5
6

      <div id="gc-2"
        class="grid-container"
        style="grid:'myArea myArea .' auto 'myArea myArea .' auto;"
      >
        <div class="grid-item" id="gc-2-item1">1</div>
        <div class="grid-item">2</div>
        <div class="grid-item">3</div>
        <div class="grid-item">4</div>
        <div class="grid-item">5</div>
        <div class="grid-item">6</div>
      </div>
    

      #gc-2 {
        grid:
          'myArea myArea .'
          'myArea myArea .';
        display: grid;
        background-color: #2196F3;
        padding: 10px;
        grid-gap: 10px;
      }
      #gc-2 .grid-item {
        background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
        border: 1px solid rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
        padding: 10px;
        font-size: 1em;
        text-align: center;
      }
      #gc-2-item1 {
        grid-area: myArea;
      }
    
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

      <div id="gc-3">
        <div class="grid-item" id="gc-3-item1">1</div>
        <div class="grid-item">2</div>
        <div class="grid-item">3</div>
        <div class="grid-item">4</div>
        <div class="grid-item">5</div>
        <div class="grid-item">6</div>
        <div class="grid-item">7</div>
        <div class="grid-item">8</div>
        <div class="grid-item">9</div>
        <div class="grid-item">10</div>
        <div class="grid-item">11</div>
        <div class="grid-item">12</div>
      </div>
    

      #gc-3 {
        display: grid;
        grid:
          'myArea myArea . . .'
          'myArea myArea . . .';
        background-color: #2196F3;
        padding: 10px;
        grid-gap: 10px;

      }
      #gc-3 .grid-item {
        background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
        border: 1px solid rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
        padding: 10px;
        font-size: 1em;
        text-align: center;
      }
      #gc-3-item1 {
        grid-area: myArea;
      }
    
Header
Menu
Main
Right
Footer

      <div id="gc-4">
        <div id="gc-4-item1">Header</div>
        <div id="gc-4-item2">Menu</div>
        <div id="gc-4-item3">Main</div>
        <div id="gc-4-item4">Right</div>
        <div id="gc-4-item5">Footer</div>
      </div>
    

      #gc-4-item1 { grid-area: header; }
      #gc-4-item2 { grid-area: menu; }
      #gc-4-item3 { grid-area: main; }
      #gc-4-item4 { grid-area: right; }
      #gc-4-item5 { grid-area: footer; }
      #gc-4 {
        display: grid;
        grid:
          'header header header header header header'
          'menu main main main right right'
          'menu footer footer footer footer footer';
        grid-gap: 10px;
        background-color: #2196F3;
        padding: 10px;
      }
      #gc-4>div {
        background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
        text-align: center;
        padding:20px 0;
        font-size: 30px;
      }
    

Responsive grid

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      <div id="gc-5">
        <div id="gc-5-item1">1</div>
        <div id="gc-5-item2">2</div>
        <div id="gc-5-item3">3</div>
        <div id="gc-5-item4">4</div>
        <div id="gc-5-item5">5</div>
        <div id="gc-5-item6">6</div>
      </div>
    

      #gc-5 {
        display: grid;
        grid-template-columns: auto auto auto;
        grid-gap: 10px;
        background-color: #2196F3;
        padding: 10px;
      }
      #gc-5 > div {
        background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
        text-align: center;
        padding: 20px 0;
        font-size: 30px;
      }
      @media only screen and (max-width: 700px) {
        #gc-5-item1 { grid-area: 1 / span 3 / 2 / 4; }
        #gc-5-item2 { grid-area: 3 / 3 / 3 / 4; }
        #gc-5-item3 { grid-area: 2 / 1 / 2 / 2; }
        #gc-5-item4 { grid-area: 2 / 2 / span 2 / 3; }
        #gc-5-item5 { grid-area: 3 / 1 / 3 / 2; }
        #gc-5-item6 { grid-area: 2 / 3 / 2 / 4; }
      }
    

Flex

Flex container properties

Flex items properties

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1

    <div class="flexp" id="fp1">
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:2 0 50px">1</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:1 0 50px">2</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:1 0 50px">3</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:0 5 50px; align-self:center">4</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:1 0 50px;">5</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:1 0 50px; order:2">6</div>
      <div class="flexc" style="flex:1 0 50px; order:1">7</div>
    </div>

    <div class="flexp" id="fp2">
      <div class="flexc">1</div>
      <div class="flexc">2</div>
      <div class="flexc">3</div>
      <div class="flexc">4</div>
    </div>

    <div class="flexp" id="fp3">
      <div class="flexc">1</div>
    </div>
  

    .flexp {
      height: 300px;
      display: flex;
      background-color: DodgerBlue;
      flex-flow: row no-wrap;
      justify-content: space-around;
      align-items: stretch;
      align-content: space-around;
    }
    .flexp > div {
      background-color: #f1f1f1;
      margin: 10px;
      padding: 20px;
      font-size: 30px;
      line-height: 75px;
    }

    #fp2 {
      flex-flow: column-reverse wrap-reverse;
      /*flex-direction: column-reverse;*/
      /*flex-wrap: wrap-reverse;*/
      justify-content: flex-start;
      align-items: flex-start;
      align-content: flex-start;
    }

    #fp3 {
      justify-content: center;
      align-items: center;
    }
  

attr() - attribute value

W3Schools HTML tutorial


    a:before {
      content: attr(title);
    }
    a:after {
      content: " (" attr(href) ")";
    }
  

    <a href="https://www.w3schools.com" title="W3Schools"></a>
    <a href="https://www.w3schools.com/html/">W3Schools HTML tutorial</a>
  

var() - Variables

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam semper diam at erat pulvinar, at pulvinar felis blandit.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam semper diam at erat pulvinar, at pulvinar felis blandit.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam semper diam at erat pulvinar, at pulvinar felis blandit.

    :root {
      --main-bg-color: DarkOrange;
      --main-txt-color: white;
      --main-padding: 5px;
    }
    #d_1 {
      background-color: var(--main-bg-color, #fff);
      color: var(--main-txt-color, #fff);
      padding: var(--main-padding, #fff);
    }
    #d_2 {
      background-color: var(--main-bg-color, #fff);
      color: var(--main-txt-color, #fff);
      padding: var(--main-padding, #fff);
    }
    #d_3 {
      background-color: var(--main-bg-color);
      color: var(--main-txt-color);
      padding: var(--main-padding);
    }
  

    <div id="d_1">Lorem ipsum ...</div>
    <div id="d_2">Lorem ipsum ...</div>
    <div id="d_3">Lorem ipsum ...</div>
  

calc() - Math


    #dc_1 {
      position: absolute;
      left: 50px;
      width: calc(100% - 100px);
      border: 1px solid black;
      background-color: yellow;
      padding: 5px;
      text-align: center;
    }
  

    <div id="dc_1">Some text...</div>
  

min|max|clamp()


    width: min(50vw, 200px);
    width: min(50vw, 4000px);
    width: min(150vw, 100px);

    width: max(20vw, 400px);
    width: max(20vw, 100px);
    width: max(5vw, 100px);

    /* clamp(MIN, VAL, MAX) is resolved as max()(MIN, min()(VAL, MAX)) */
    font-size: clamp(1rem, 2.5vw, 2rem);
    font-size: clamp(1.5rem, 2.5vw, 4rem);
    font-size: clamp(1rem, 10vw, 2rem);

    /* text size, make sure the text is always large enough to read */
    small {
      font-size: max(min(0.5vw, 0.5em), 1rem);
    }

    body {
      margin: 0 auto;
      width: min(1000px, calc(70% + 100px));
    }
    h1 {
      letter-spacing: 2px;
      font-size: clamp(1.8rem, 2.5vw, 2.8rem);
    }
    p {
      line-height: 1.5;
      font-size: max(1.2rem, 1.2vw);
    }

    /*
      min|max|clamp( <calc-sum># )
        where
          <calc-sum> = <calc-product> [ [ '+' | '-' ] <calc-product> ]*
        where
          <calc-product> = <calc-value> [ '*' <calc-value> | '/' <number> ]*
        where
          <calc-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <percentage> | ( <calc-sum> )
    */
  

    /* text blocks are not narrower than 45 or wider than 75 characters */
    .card {
      width: clamp(45ch, 50%, 75ch);
      width: max(45ch, 50%);
      width: min(75ch, 50%);
      display: flex;
      flex-direction: column;
      background: lightpink;
      padding: 1rem;
    }

    /* dynamic padding */
    footer {
      --contentWidth: 400px;
      background: lightcoral;
      padding: 2rem max(2rem, 50vw - var(--contentWidth) / 2);
    }

    /* fluid typography */
    body {
      display: grid;
      place-items: center;
      height: 90vh;
    }
    h1 {
      text-align: center;
      font-size: clamp(1.5rem, 5vw, 3rem);
    }
  

Media Queries - @media


    @media not|only mediatype and (media feature and|or|not mediafeature) {
      /* CSS-Code */
    }
  

different stylesheets for different media


    <link rel="stylesheet" media="mediatype and|not|only (expressions)" href="print.css">

    <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <link href="print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print">
    <link href="other.css" rel="stylesheet" media="(min-width: 40em)">

    <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet" media="all">
    <link href="portrait.css" rel="stylesheet" media="orientation:portrait">
    <link href="print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print">
  

    /* hide an element when the browser's width is 600px wide or less */
    @media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
      div.example {
        display: none;
      }
    }

    /*
    * set the background-color to lavender if the viewport is 800 pixels wide or wider
    * to lightgreen if the viewport is between 400 and 799 pixels wide
    * if the viewport is smaller than 400 pixels, the background-color is lightblue
    */
    body {
        background-color: lightblue;
    }
    @media screen and (min-width: 400px) {
        body {
            background-color: lightgreen;
        }
    }
    @media screen and (min-width: 800px) {
        body {
            background-color: lavender;
        }
    }

    /*
      responsive navigation menu
      displayed horizontally on large screens and vertically on small screens
    */
    @media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
        .topnav a {
            float: none;
            width: 100%;
        }
    }

    /* responsive column layout with FLOAT */
    .column {
        float: left;
        width: 25%;
    }
    @media screen and (max-width: 992px) {
        .column {
            width: 50%;
        }
    }
    @media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
        .column {
            width: 100%;
        }
    }
    /* same with FLEX */
    .row {
      display: flex;
      flex-wrap: wrap;
    }
    .column {
      flex: 25%;
      padding: 20px;
    }
    @media screen and (max-width: 992px) {
      .column {
        flex: 50%;
      }
    }
    @media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
      .row {
        flex-direction: column;
      }
    }

    /* when the width is between 600px and 900px */
    @media screen and (max-width: 900px) and (min-width: 600px) {
      div.example {
        font-size: 50px;
        padding: 50px;
        border: 8px solid black;
        background: yellow;
      }
    }
    /* when the width is between 600px and 900px OR above 1100px */
    @media screen and (max-width: 900px) and (min-width: 600px), (min-width: 1100px) {
      div.example {
        font-size: 50px;
        padding: 50px;
        border: 8px solid black;
        background: yellow;
      }
    }

    /* change layout of a page depending on the orientation of the browser */
    @media only screen and (orientation: landscape) {
        body {
            background-color: lightblue;
        }
    }

    /*
    * set the text color to green when the document is displayed on the screen
    * and to black when it is printed
    */
    @media screen {
        body {
            color: green;
        }
    }
    @media print {
        body {
            color: black;
        }
    }

    /*
    * for PWA
    * fullscreen. standalone, minimal-ui, browser
    */
    @media all and (display-mode: fullscreen) {
      body {
        margin: 0;
        border: 5px solid black;
      }
    }
  

Media Types

Value Description
all Default. Used for all media type devices
print Used for printers
screen Used for computer screens, tablets, smart-phones etc.
speech Used for screenreaders that "reads" the page out loud

Media Features

Value Description
any-hover Does any available input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
any-pointer Is any available input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
aspect-ratio The ratio between the width and the height of the viewport
color The number of bits per color component for the output device
color-gamut The approximate range of colors that are supported by the user agent and output device (added in Media Queries Level 4)
color-index The number of colors the device can display
grid Whether the device is a grid or bitmap
height The viewport height
hover Does the primary input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
inverted-colors Is the browser or underlying OS inverting colors? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
light-level Current ambient light level (added in Media Queries Level 4)
max-aspect-ratio The maximum ratio between the width and the height of the display area
max-color The maximum number of bits per color component for the output device
max-color-index The maximum number of colors the device can display
max-height The maximum height of the display area, such as a browser window
max-monochrome The maximum number of bits per "color" on a monochrome (greyscale) device
max-resolution The maximum resolution of the device, using dpi or dpcm
max-width The maximum width of the display area, such as a browser window
min-aspect-ratio The minimum ratio between the width and the height of the display area
min-color The minimum number of bits per color component for the output device
min-color-index The minimum number of colors the device can display
min-height The minimum height of the display area, such as a browser window
min-monochrome The minimum number of bits per "color" on a monochrome (greyscale) device
min-resolution The minimum resolution of the device, using dpi or dpcm
min-width The minimum width of the display area, such as a browser window
monochrome The number of bits per "color" on a monochrome (greyscale) device
orientation The orientation of the viewport (landscape or portrait mode)
overflow-block How does the output device handle content that overflows the viewport along the block axis (added in Media Queries Level 4)
overflow-inline Can content that overflows the viewport along the inline axis be scrolled (added in Media Queries Level 4)
pointer Is the primary input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
resolution The resolution of the output device, using dpi or dpcm
scan The scanning process of the output device
scripting Is scripting (e.g. JavaScript) available? (added in Media Queries Level 4)
update How quickly can the output device modify the appearance of the content (added in Media Queries Level 4)
width The viewport width

RWD

Viewport


    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  

Responsive Grid View

Chania

  • The Flight
  • The City
  • The Island
  • The Food

The City

Chania is the capital of the Chania region on the island of Crete. The city can be divided in two parts, the old town and the modern city.

What?

Chania is a city on the island of Crete.

Where?

Crete is a Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea.

How?

You can reach Chania airport from all over Europe.


    <div class="container" id="rwd-cols">
      <div class="r-header">
        <h1>Chania</h1>
      </div>
      <div class="r-row">
        <div class="r-col-3 r-menu">
          <ul>
            <li>The Flight</li>
            <li>The City</li>
            <li>The Island</li>
            <li>The Food</li>
          </ul>
        </div>
        <div class="r-col-6">
          <h1>The City</h1>
          <p>Chania is ...</p>
        </div>
        <div class="r-col-3">
          <div class="r-aside">
            <h2>What?</h2>
            <p>Chania is a city on the island of Crete.</p>
            <h2>Where?</h2>
            <p>Crete is a Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea.</p>
            <h2>How?</h2>
            <p>You can reach Chania airport from all over Europe.</p>
          </div>
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="r-footer">
        <p>Resize ...</p>
      </div>
    </div>
  

    .r-row::after {
      content: "";
      clear: both;
      display: table;
    }
    [class*="r-col-"] {
      float: left;
      padding: 15px;
    }
    .r-header {
      background-color: #9933cc;
      color: #ffffff;
      padding: 15px;
    }
    .r-menu ul {
      list-style-type: none;
      margin: 0;
      padding: 0;
    }
    .r-menu li {
      padding: 8px;
      margin-bottom: 7px;
      background-color: #33b5e5;
      color: #ffffff;
      box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
    }
    .r-menu li:hover {
      background-color: #0099cc;
    }
    .r-aside {
      background-color: #33b5e5;
      padding: 15px;
      color: #ffffff;
      text-align: center;
      font-size: 14px;
      box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
    }
    .r-footer {
      background-color: #0099cc;
      color: #ffffff;
      text-align: center;
      font-size: 12px;
      padding: 15px;
    }
    /* For mobile phones: */
    [class*="r-col-"] {
      width: 100%;
    }
    @media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
      /* For desktop: */
      .r-col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
      .r-col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
      .r-col-3 {width: 25%;}
      .r-col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
      .r-col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
      .r-col-6 {width: 50%;}
      .r-col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
      .r-col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
      .r-col-9 {width: 75%;}
      .r-col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
      .r-col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
      .r-col-12 {width: 100%;}
    }
    #rwd-cols {
      padding: 20px;
      color: white;
      resize: both;
      width:100%;
      height:100%;
      overflow: auto;
    }
    /* Extra small devices (phones, 600px and down) */
    @media only screen and (max-width: 600px) {
      #rwd-cols {background: red;}
    }
    /* Small devices (portrait tablets and large phones, 600px and up) */
    @media only screen and (min-width: 600px) {
      #rwd-cols {background: green;}
    }
    /* Medium devices (landscape tablets, 768px and up) */
    @media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
      #rwd-cols {background: blue;}
    }
    /* Large devices (laptops/desktops, 992px and up) */
    @media only screen and (min-width: 992px) {
      #rwd-cols {background: orange;}
    }
    /* Extra large devices (large laptops and desktops, 1200px and up) */
    @media only screen and (min-width: 1200px) {
      #rwd-cols {background: pink;}
    }
  

Alternate/switch style


    <link href="../css/css_redbg.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" type="text/css" title="Red Background"/<
    <link href="../css/css_bluedbg.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" type="text/css" title="Blue Background"/>
  

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